Describe in what you do to stay in shape in Spanish.



PHRASES:

Hago mucho ejercicio. I exercise a lot.
Una vida saludable requiere una buena dieta. A healthy life requires a good diet.
Voy al gimnasio todos los días entre semana. I go to the gym every weekday.
En los fines de semana juego fútbol o ando en bicicleta. On the weekends I play soccer or ride bicycle.
Ese tipo está bien fuerte. Levanta pesas todos los días. That guy is really strong. He lifts weights everyday.
Mi tío corría en maratones cuando era más joven. My uncle used to run in marathons when he was younger.
¿Cómo te mantienes en forma? How do you stay in shape?
Cuando hago ejercicio afuera en el verano sudo mucho. When I exercise outside in the summer I sweat a lot.
He bajado de peso gracias a mi nueva dieta. I have lost weight thanks to my new diet.
Yo practicaba el atletísmo en la preparatoria. I was in track and field in high school.

VOCABULARY:

atletismo (m)   track and field
caminar   to walk
correr   to run
débil (adj)   weak
dieta (f)   diet
estar en buena forma   to be in shape
fuerte (adj)   strong
fútbol (m)   soccer
gimnasio (m)   gymnasium, gym
hacer ejercicio   to do excercise
levantar pesas   to lift weights
mantenerse en forma   to stay in shape
maratón (m)   marathon
saludable (adj)   healthy
subir/bajar de peso   to gain/lose weight
sudar   to sweat

GRAMMAR:

Present Perfect

Like English, Spanish has the compound verb form called the present perfect. It is made up of two parts: the auxiliary verb haber in its present indicative form, conjugated according to the subject and a past participle. The present indicative form of haber is conjugated in the following manner:

 

yo he
  has
  él/ella/Ud. ha
  nosotros hemos
  vosotros habéis
  ellos/ellas/Uds. han

 

The past participle is formed by adding the suffix -ado to -ar verbs and -ido to -er and -ir verbs. Here are some examples:

-ar verbs:

 

hablar hablado
  cambiar cambiado
  gustar gustado

 

-er and -ir verbs

 

comer comido
  tener tenido
  salir salido

 

Many verbs have irregular past participles. Here are some of the most common ones:

-er and -ir verbs

 

abrir abierto
decir dicho
hacer hecho
morir muerto
poner puesto
romper roto
ver visto

 

The present perfect tense refers to a completed action and generally does not specify the details of that action. For example:

 

He nadado en el Golfo de México. I have swum in the Golf of Mexico.

 

We don't know exactly when this person swam in the Golf of Mexico we only know that he or she has done it at some point in the past. Generally, when the specific details of a past event are mentioned the preterite is used. For example:

 

Nadé en el Golfo de México cuando estuvimos en Veracruz el año pasado. I swam in the Golf of Mexico when we were in Veracruz last year.

 

However it should be noted that in Spain and Bolivia the present perfect is often used interchangeably with the preterite.

A common use of the present perfect is when one is expressing the idea of having done something within a period of time that has not yet finished. For example:

 

Hemos hablado mucho esta semana. We've spoken a lot this week.
  No me has visitado este mes. You haven't visited me this month.
  Me he bañado tres veces hoy. I've bathed three times today.

 

One difference regarding the use of the present perfect is that, unlike in English, no words can come between the auxiliary (haber) and the past participle in Spanish. For example:

 

Nunca he estado allí. I have never been there.
  Siempre nos ha gustado Italia. We've always liked Italy.

 

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